1. The choice of the camping site
The selection and construction of the campsite is a big issue related to the rest of all personnel. The choice of the campsite is very particular. The following are the matters needing attention:
(1) Near water: Camping and rest are inseparable from water. Nearness is the first element in choosing a campsite. Therefore, when choosing a campsite, you should be close to streams, lakes, and rivers to get water. However, camps should not be tied to the river beach. Some rivers have power plants in the upper reaches of the river. During the impoundment period, the river beach is wide, and the water flow is small. Once the water is released, the river beach will be full, including some usually small streams. When floods or flash floods occur, attention must be paid to prevent such problems, especially in the rainy season and flash flood-prone areas.
(2) Leeward wind: When camping in the wild, you must consider the problem of leeward wind, especially in some valleys and river beaches, you should choose a place leeward to camp. Also, pay attention to the direction of the tent door not to face the wind. Leeward also considers fire safety and convenience.
(3) Far cliffs: When camping, you can't put the camp under the cliff. This is very dangerous. Once a strong wind blows on the mountain, rocks and other objects may be blown off, causing casualties.
(4) Near the village: If the camp is close to the village, you can ask the villagers for help if there is an emergency. This is even more important when there is no firewood, vegetables, food, etc. The approach to the village is also a shortcut, that is, close to the road, which facilitates the movement and transfer of the team
(5) Shady: If it is a camp that needs to live for more than two days, choose a shady place in good weather
(6) Set up camp: such as under the big tree and on the north side of the mountain, it is best to shine the sun in the morning rather than the sun at sunset. In this way, if you rest during the day, the tent will not be too stuffy.
(7) Lightning protection: In the rainy season or areas with heavy thunder and lightning, the camp must not be anchored on high ground, under high trees, or relatively isolated flat ground. That's easy to attract lightning strikes.
(8) Lighting: As long as you go outdoors, especially for outdoor activities at night, you need to be equipped with a reliable and practical headlamp that can free your hands, which can ensure the safety of night operations and allow you to enjoy the outdoor fun freely. The headlamp will be Your better choice for outdoor travel!
2. Small knowledge of outdoor weather:
You should know some basic knowledge of weather when you travel outdoors. Once you are outdoors, you can only resign yourself to fate. We can only understand nature but cannot control nature. Except for thenderstorms, heavy snow, and other circumstances, you should stop and rest during the trip, and you can continue to act in other situations. And camping in the wild requires more consideration of some meteorological issues:
(1) Rain protection: Rain protection is an important consideration of camping weather. If it is judged that it may rain that night, the camp and tents should be treated with necessary rain protection. In addition to choosing a good campsite, it is necessary to dig flood drains, strengthen the tents and Enhance rainproof performance. For example, rainproof plastic cloth and raincoat can be added outside the tent, and various travel goods can be placed in the tent.
(2) Windproof: It is more important to set up camp according to the wind direction, which is related to the overall arrangement of the tent door, the opening direction of the stove, and the overall layout of each area of the camp. This requires some knowledge of topography and climate and camping on the edge of a large lake; today's wind direction changes in opposite directions. During the day, the ground temperature rises quickly, and the wind is blowing toward the land; at night, the ground temperature drops quickly, and the wind direction is blowing toward the lake area. Therefore, the tent door should be opened to the wind, and the stove mouth should be opened to the wind. A similar situation exists in hot and dry mountainous areas. During the day, the temperature in the valley (valley) rises slower than that of the hillside (mountain top), and there is an updraft, that is, the valley is blowing upwards, while at night, there is a downdraft, and the wind blows toward the valley. Therefore, when camping in the valley, you should consider this situation beforehand. It is important to study wind direction and wind force. It is more important to correspond to outdoor sports. If possible, you can bring a wind direction wind meter or check the wind force according to the following table. You may as well record a day when keeping a diary Maximum wind speed.
Wind power rating summary table Wind speed unit: m/s
Wind power rating Wind speed Outer boundary appearance
0-level static wind 0.0-0.2 The smoke column is straight up, there is no wave on the water, and the leaves do not move.
Level 1 soft wind 0.3-1.5 is weak and weak; the smoke goes with the wind, and the leaves move slightly.
Level 2 breeze 1.6-3.3 people feel it, the tree makes a slight noise, and the flag starts to move.
Level 3 breeze 3.4-5.4 swaying twigs, banner winds, and rice swaying.
Level 4 gentle breeze 5.5-7.9 The branches bend, the dust is everywhere, and the paper is floating in the air.
The strong winds of magnitude 5 8.0-10.7 shook the trees, the lakes and ponds waved, and the crops undulated.
Strong wind of level 6 10.8-13.8 There are noises in electric wires, it is difficult to hold umbrellas, and the trees are shaking.
Grade 7 winds 13.9-17.1 It is difficult to move in the wind, the whole tree is shaking, and the big tree bends its branches.
Level 8 gale 17.2-20.7 The resistance is very large, the twigs are broken, the rivers are violent.
Level 9 gale 20.8-24.4 blows out the chimney, the hut is damaged, and the tiles move.
Level 10 strong wind 24.5-28.4 Pedestrians blow away, it is difficult to move against the wind, and the trees blowdown.
Level 11 storm 28.5-32.6 severe damage
Category 12 hurricane 32.7 and above, extremely devastating
Temperature is equally important for outdoor travel. We should learn temperature management, that is, grasp the temperature changes and laws in what season and area, and configure the equipment and clothing. Learn to have a more accurate intuitive judgment of temperature and changes, so always carry a temperature meter. Regular control observation and experience. In a day, the highest temperature is generally at 2 pm, which is its peak: and the lowest point is from 2 to 3 at night. The temperature difference between these days is called the daily difference. The magnitude of the daily difference is related to factors such as geographic latitude, topography, season, and weather conditions. Compared to cloudy days, the basins are worse than plains, and deserts are worse than woodlands. In the forest, due to the storage function of the dry forest, the daily difference is small. The temperature in the forest is 0.7~2.3°C lower than that of the unforested land, and the temperature is 8~10°C in summer and 4~5°C in winter. At the same time, the humidity in the forest is also higher. Therefore, camping in the forest should pay attention to this problem.
4. Accommodation in the cave
In the wild in most parts of the south, various forms of caves are often seen, such as dry caves, water caves, mountain caves, compound caves, etc. Accommodation in a cave is one of the most common ways of field travel. Our ancestors started a new life on the ground by staying in a cave. It can be seen that the accommodation cave is safe, convenient, warm, and a good place for shelter from wind and rain. The following points should be paid attention to when staying in a cave:
(1) Ventilation: First of all, it is necessary to determine whether the cave is ventilated, not a dead one. It is very important to maintain air circulation. You can light a cigarette to check whether the hole is ventilated. As long as the smoke flutters in or out of the hole in one direction, it means that the hole is ventilated.
(2) Shallow residence: Most caves are relatively deep. From a safety point of view, it is best to arrange the camp near the cave entrance to facilitate camping and transfer.
(3) Water regime: When determining whether a cave can be accommodated, the water regime of the cave should be ascertained. Most caves have flowing groundwater activity, and some groundwater regimes are complex, especially in the rainy season. , The chosen accommodation should be dry and free of dripping water. You should pay attention to other things when staying in caves: Many caves are filled with animals such as bats and swallows. Therefore, it is best to avoid disturbing them when staying in caves or changing to another cave. If you have no experience in cave exploration, you should do less activity in the cave, and single-person activities should be prohibited; you can stay in the cave without setting up a tent, just spread all kinds of bedding, and if there are mosquitoes, you can burn smoke to drive them away.
5. Open-air camping:
Sleeping in the open air is a kind of exercise and test for our wildlife, and it is also a rare life experience. In the weather without rain, strong wind, snow, and frost, you can try sleeping in the open air without putting up a tent or any other shelter. You can choose to camp under a big tree, cover it with a plastic sheet, a moisture-proof mat, and put a sleeping bag on it. You can cover the sleeping bag with a piece of plastic sheet or simply hang a rainproof cloth on top of the sleeping bag. To prevent dew and mosquitoes, you can put a layer of gauze on the headgear of the sleeping bag to prevent mosquitoes or burn fireworks overnight, preventing frost and reducing dew. Of course, do not camp in the open air during the rainy season and winter. In addition, be careful not to sleep in the waterside and densely planted places, where there are many mosquitoes, and it is not safe. At the same time, the temperature in the open air is generally about 5 degrees lower than that in the tent, so you should add more clothing to prevent catching a cold.
6. Another way to camp is to use a hammock.
The advantage of a hammock is that it will not be disturbed by animals on the ground (such as snakes and other reptiles), and it is very suitable in some damp areas. When using a hammock, a moisture-proof pad should be placed under the sleeping bag. And hang a rrainproofcloth above the hammock. There is a hammock-style tent that has a rain canopy and a mosquito-proof gauze net. It is very suitable for camping in the forest. If the snow is thicker, you can use snow to make a simple igloo. To build an igloo, you must have relatively compact snow and then a shovel to cut it. Construction, due to space limitations, this book does not focus much on camping methods under special conditions.
7. Outdoor work and rest:
Reasonable outdoor work and rest arrangements are important ways to ensure good health. It is often caused by excitement, excitement, and other reasons. Everyone talks about endlessly by the canopy fire or engages in recreational activities, which affects normal rest. Pay special attention to this, because everyone is tired physically and mentally after a day of activity. At this time, the team leader should stipulate a unified work and rest time, such as no more than midnight in the night to rest, no more than 7 to 8 am to get up, especially emphasize the need to be unified and not affect the whole due to individual people.