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How to choose explosion-proof headlamps? What should I pay attention to when using?

News Trade News2021-10-07 20:15:58

With the rapid development of the petroleum, chemical, mining and other industries, lighting fixtures are used more and more widely in production, storage, and rescue, and there are more and more varieties. How to prevent the accidental explosion of lighting fixtures has become a very important topic in explosive gas dangerous places. As lighting fixtures inevitably generate electric sparks or form hot surfaces during work, once they encounter explosive gas mixtures at the production or rescue site, they will cause explosion accidents and directly endanger the lives of citizens and the safety of the national property. Therefore, as the most widely used lighting fixture, its explosion-proof technology has already aroused people’s general concern and great attention. Aluminium alloy shell with the plastic sprayed surface; a dual purpose for Lighting and emergency; built-in maintenance-free nickel-cadmium battery pack, which is automatically charged under the normal power supply, and the emergency light will be automatically turned on when the power is cut off in an accident or power failure; steel pipe wiring; special emergency light is normal Lighting, and emergency lighting is independent; Lighting dual-purpose emergency lamps, normal Lighting and emergency lighting share a single lamp body, and the light source are independent.

Explosion-proof headlamp
Scope of application:

1. Applicable to hazardous locations in zone 1 and zone 2 of the explosive gas environment;
2. Suitable for IIA, IIB, IIC level explosive gas environment;
3. Applicable to areas 20, 21 and 22 of combustible dust environment;
4. It is suitable for the environment where the temperature group is T1-T6.

Protection level

Classified according to the protection level of the enclosure: In order to prevent dust, solid foreign objects and water from entering the lamp cavity, touching or accumulating on live parts, causing flashover, short circuit or damage to electrical insulation, there are multiple enclosure protection methods to protect the electrical The role of insulation. Use the characteristic letter "IP" followed by two numbers to characterize the enclosure protection level. The first number indicates the ability to protect against people, solid foreign objects or dust. It is divided into 0-6 levels. Explosion-proof luminaire is a kind of sealed luminaire; its dustproof ability is at least four or above. The second number indicates the water protection ability, which is divided into 0-8 grades.

Support surface material

According to the classification of the supporting surface material of the lamp design: indoor explosion-proof lamps may be installed on many common combustible material surfaces, such as wooden walls and ceilings. They do not allow the temperature of the installation surface of the explosion-proof lamps to exceed the safe value. According to whether explosion-proof lamps can be directly installed on the surface of ordinary combustible materials, they can be divided into two categories.
One category is lamps that are only suitable for installation on non-combustible surfaces.
The other is the lamps suitable for direct installation on the surface of ordinary combustible materials, with marking symbols.
In addition, according to the form of installation and use, it can be divided into fixed type, movable type and portable type.

Choose a model

The selection, installation, use and maintenance of explosion-proof headlamps are all indispensable links to ensure the long-term safety, reliability and high efficiency of explosion-proof headlamps, and full attention must be paid.

1 The selection personnel must understand the basic working principle of explosion-proof headlamps and be familiar with explosion-proof signs.
2 According to the level of explosive hazardous locations, accurately select the explosion-proof category, type, level and temperature group of the lamp.
3 Understand the use of environmental conditions and work requirements and reasonably choose explosion-proof headlamps with various functions. For example, the enclosure protection level of explosion-proof lamps and lanterns used outdoors should reach at least IP43. In places where colour discrimination is required, explosion-proof lamps such as high-pressure mercury lamps and high-pressure sodium lamps cannot be used because these two light sources have poor colour rendering.
4 Read the product manual in detail, understand the product's performance, precautions and product limitations, and understand the content of all product marks. If there is an "x" symbol after the explosion-proof certificate number, it means that the lamp has a specific applicable place. You should consult the product manual and nameplate to clarify the applicable place requirements.

Light source selection

Although incandescent lamps are still used more often, they are gradually being replaced by other light sources due to their low luminous efficiency and short life. Among them, the most common applications are:
· Single-plug non-starter fluorescent lamps.
· Self-ballasted high-pressure mercury lamps.
· High-pressure sodium lamps.

The single-plug starter-less fluorescent lamp is a cold cathode gas discharge lamp. The light-emitting principle is to use the discharge between the electrodes to generate ultraviolet radiation from mercury atoms, thereby exciting the fluorescent material on the inner wall of the tube to emit light. This kind of fluorescent lamp has high luminous efficiency (about three times that of an incandescent lamp), a long service life, and does not require a starter when starting (usually there is a conductive layer on the wall of the lamp tube, called the starting layer, which is the starting layer of the fluorescent lamp. Rely on it to complete; when the lamp tube is broken, the luminous layer is also destroyed, and the lamp is extinguished), the cathode temperature is low (about 200 ℃), it is safe and practical light source, very suitable for making safety-increased lighting lamps. The self-ballasted high-pressure mercury lamp is a mixed light source lamp that uses high-pressure mercury vapour discharge and three types of incandescent and fluorescent materials to emit light. It has the advantages of high brightness, simple structure and fast starting speed. The shortcomings of the previous high-pressure mercury lamps that require an external ballast are changed, and the tungsten wire is used to limit the current, and at the same time, the light colour is improved. The disadvantage is that the life span is shorter than that of ordinary fluorescent high-pressure mercury lamps. The high-pressure sodium lamp is a high-pressure sodium vapour discharge lamp with the advantages of high luminous efficiency, low power consumption, strong fog penetration ability, and long life.
The production facilities of the author's unit mainly use single-plug non-starter fluorescent lamps and self-ballasted high-pressure mercury lamps. Under the condition of meeting the minimum distance between the bulb and the transparent cover specified in the regulations, the original fixed explosion-proof incandescent lamp has been approved by the relevant unit and replaced the incandescent bulb with the original lamp self-ballasted high-pressure mercury bulb. Although the high-pressure sodium lamp has a certain energy-saving effect, we generally do not use it in the production device and only use it for road lighting because of its poor colour rendering. Sometimes in order to improve the direct white light colour emitted by the high-pressure mercury lamp, some high-pressure sodium lamps can also be incorporated into the production device. For places that require high-intensity Lighting with good colour rendering (such as on-site maintenance of large unit equipment), explosion-proof floodlights can be used. The light source is generally metal halide lamps, and the rated power can reach more than 1000W.

Explosion-proof headlamp

Structure type

The explosion-proof structure type of the explosion-proof lamp should be determined according to the regional grade and scope of the explosive gas environment. For example, explosion-proof lamps must be used within the scope of zone 1; fixed lamps in zone 2 can be explosion-proof and increased safety types, and mobile lamps must be Explosion-proof type is adopted. The level or group of the selected explosion-proof lamp should not be lower than the level and group of the explosive mixture in the explosive environment. At the same time, the impact of the environment on the explosion-proof lamp should be considered, and the requirements of various environments such as ambient temperature, air humidity, corrosive or polluting substances should be met. The protection level and anti-corrosion level of the lamps should be selected according to different environmental requirements. Especially when there is corrosive gas in an explosive gas environment, it is very important to choose lamps with corresponding anti-corrosion performance.
In the past, in petrochemical enterprises, explosion-proof lighting fixtures were mainly used in explosion-hazardous places. With the wide application of increased-safety electrical equipment in explosion-hazardous areas in Zone 2, increased-safety and composite lighting fixtures have also been increasingly used. On the basis of certain explosion-proof performance, safety-increased lamps have the advantages of lighter weight, low price, convenient installation and maintenance, and long service life compared with explosion-proof lamps. Petrochemical companies' most commonly used composite electrical equipment is the increased safety-flameproof composite explosion-proof electrical equipment, which is generally composed of explosion-proof components, increased safety terminal blocks, and increased safety enclosures. It has both flameproof safety Performance and has the advantage of increased safety.

Notice

Portable luminaires are divided into two types: power supply from the feeder grid and self-contained power supply. For lamps powered by the feeder grid, rubber-sheathed cables should be used from the explosion-proof junction box (box) or explosion-proof plug to the lamp, and the grounding or neutral core should be in the same sheath; the cable should adopt the main core, and the minimum allowable cross-section is YC, YCW heavy-duty rubber sheathed cables of 25 square millimetres. One point must be emphasized here: the cables of portable luminaires are not allowed to have intermediate joints.

In the management of electrical explosion-proof safety, there must be no luck. It must be done in strict accordance with the relevant regulations and requirements to be foolproof.

1. Explosion-proof electrical equipment

Electrical equipment with an electrical equipment enclosure that can withstand the explosive pressure of the internal explosive gas mixture and prevent the internal explosion from spreading to the explosive mixture around the enclosure is marked as "d".

2. Increased electrical safety equipment

Under normal operating conditions, there will be no arcs, sparks or high temperatures that may ignite explosive mixtures. Structural measures are taken to increase the safety margin to avoid arcs, sparks or high-humidity electrical equipment under normal and approved overload conditions. The mark Is "e".

3. Explosion-proof principle

There are two reasons for electrical equipment to ignite flammable gas mixtures: one is sparks and arcs generated by electrical equipment, and the other is heating of electrical equipment surfaces (that is, surfaces in contact with flammable gas mixtures). The parts that can generate arcs and sparks during normal operation of the equipment are placed in the flameproof enclosure, or other explosion-proof types such as encapsulation type, sand-filled type, oil-filled type, or positive pressure type can be used to achieve the purpose of explosion-proof. For increased-safety electrical equipment, it is the equipment that does not produce arcs, sparks and dangerously high temperatures during normal operation. If some protective measures are taken on its structure, try to make the equipment under normal operation or approved overload conditions. The occurrence of electric arcs, sparks, and overheating can further improve the safety and reliability of the equipment. Therefore, this equipment has no ignition source during normal operation and can be used in an explosive environment.

4. Examples of explosion-proof signs

(1) If the electrical equipment is in the Class ⅡB flameproof T3 group, the mark is ExdⅡBT3.
(2) If the electrical equipment is of class II increased safety type, the temperature group is T2 group, and the mark is ExeⅡT2.
(3). If the electrical equipment adopts more than one composite type, mark the explosion-proof type of the main body first, and then mark other explosion-proof types. It is ExedⅡCT4.
(4) If the electrical equipment is dustproof and dustproof T11 group. The mark is DIPDPT11.

illustrate

Explosion-proof lamps are a type of lighting lamp with explosion-proof performance and have a mark such as Ex. The state has certain requirements for the sealing performance of explosion-proof lamps and further protection measures in the structure. Non-explosion-proof lamps do not have more than one requirement.
First, please refer to the national standards for the explosion-proof category, level and temperature group of explosion-proof lamps.
Second. According to the type of electric shock protection, it can be divided into Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ categories. The protection against electric shock is to prevent the easy-to-touch parts of the explosion-proof lamp shell from electrifying, causing electric shock to the human body or touching the conductors of different potentials to generate electric sparks and ignite the explosive mixture.
Class AⅠ—On the basis of basic insulation, all accessible conductive parts that are not charged during normal operation are connected to the protective grounding conductor in the fixed-line.
Class BⅡ-Double insulation or reinforced insulation is used as a safety protection measure, without grounding protection.
Class CⅢ-Use a safe voltage with an effective value of not more than 50v, and no voltage higher than this value will be generated in it.
Class D0-only rely on basic insulation as a safety protection measure.

warn

1. Replacement of light sources, charging, maintenance, and disassembly of lamps must be carried out in a safe place;
2. Wet cotton cloth must be used to wipe the surface in dangerous places.

Notice

1. When transporting, the lamps must be packed in the equipped carton, and foam shock absorption should be installed.
2. The power must be turned off when charging. A slight temperature rise of the casing is normal.
3. If the lamp is not used for a long time, charge it at least once within six months.
4. When using, each structure should be tightly combined to enhance waterproof, explosion-proof and impact resistance.

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